How to make Nitric Acid

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    تاريخ التسجيل : 31/12/1969

    How to make Nitric Acid

    مُساهمة   في الأحد فبراير 06, 2011 1:42 pm

    وَأَعِدُّوا لَهُمْ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ قُوَّةٍ وَمِنْ رِبَاطِ الْخَيْلِ تُرْهِبُونَ بِهِ عَدُوَّ اللَّهِ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ وَآخَرِينَ مِنْ دُونِهِمْ لا تَعْلَمُونَهُمُ اللَّهُ يَعْلَمُهُمْ وَمَا تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ شَيْءٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لا تُظْلَمُونَ



    How to make Nitric Acid




    Watch this science video tutorial from Nurd Rage on how to make nitric acid. They show three ways to make nitric acid based on two different chemical approaches, both of which can be done using easily accessible materials.



    Warning: The procedures in this video produce large quantities of toxic gases and deal with highly corrosive acids. All work must be performed in a fume hood with proper safety equipment. And all apparatus must be glass to withstand the acids.

    Chemically, nitric acid is made by bubbling nitrogen dioxide into water. So the objective in this approach is to generate nitrogen dioxide. This can be done by reacting hydrochloric acid, a nitrate salt and copper. Around 80-grams of sodium nitrate, over 30-grams of copper and 100-mL of hydrochloric acid are the quantities needed. The exact amount isn't critical. For useable concentrations, the amount of water being converted should be small, around 20-50-mL.

    Any source of nitrate is usable including potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate and even nitrate-based fertilizers.

    The tricky part now is leading the gas into water. Two approaches are shown in the video. In the first approach three containers, such as jars are place inside each other to force the gas to go into the water. This is very inefficient but is very simple to do.

    The better approach is to lead the gas out of the generator through a tube and into a chilled container of water.

    The last way of making pure nitric acid is to react concentrated sulfuric acid and a pure nitrate salt (NOT fertilizer) and heat it in a glass distillation apparatus to distill over the pure nitric acid. Stochiometric quantities of both reagents are recommended for maximum yield

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    Chemically, nitric acid is made by bubbling nitrogen dioxide into water. So the objective is to generate nitrogen dioxide. In the first two methods, nitrogen dioxide is generated by reacting copper with an acidic solution of nitrate ions

    Cu + 2NaNO3 + 4HCl → CuCl2 + 2NaCl + 2NO2 + 2H2O

    The reaction is written with sodium nitrate as the nitrate source but this will work with almost any nitrate salt. Hydrochloric acid is used because it's the most convenient but sulfuric acid can also be used. An excess of acid is needed to keep the solution acidic enough to generate nitrogen dioxide. Otherwise, nitrogen monoxide will be generated

    3Cu + 2NaNO3 + 8HCl → 3CuCl2 + 2NaCl + 2NO + 4H2O

    Once nitrogen dioxide is obtained, it is bubbled through hydrogen peroxide to produce nitric acid

    2NO2 +H2O2 → 2HNO3

    Alternatively, if hydrogen peroxide is unavailable, it can be bubbled just through water with the awareness that the yield will be reduced

    NO2 + H2O → 2 HNO3 + NO3

    The copper chloride salts from the reaction mix can be reconverted back into valuable copper to create more acid

    2Al + 3CuCl2 → 2AlCl3 + 3Cu

    If you have sulfuric acid and glass distillation equipment then it is better to create pure nitric acid by reacting a pure nitrate salt like sodium nitrate with sulfuric acid and heating the mixture to boil off the nitric acid

    2NaNO3 + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2HNO3

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو السبت ديسمبر 03, 2016 2:49 pm